A term paper on border crossing delays

The project had a controversial history but is now making progress, with boring of the tunnel expected to start next year.

A term paper on border crossing delays

This article was originally published in the Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education. This essay examines the territory-based rhetoric of the cultural border, boundaries and borderlands.

Critiquing the essentialist view that presumes fixed boundaries for a culture, the author suggests the constructivist view that assumes individuals power of defining and redefining their cultural identities in a multicultural society.

The author illustrates different multicultural make-ups that a multiracial, an adoptee, a U. Although cultural diversity is often defined by seemingly clear-cut categories such as ethnicity, race, class, religion, gender, sexual orientation, and exceptionality1, sorting out "culture" intertwined with these multicultural categories is a complex process.

I am not even sure whether anyone sees the value of taking on the challenge because different categories of people are considered synonymous with cultural differences.

It is common to hear references to Asian-American culture, Black culture, Muslim culture, female culture, homosexual culture and ADD culture as if they have clear boundaries and are distinguished entities.

It is also assumed that if an Asian meets an African-American their presumed cultural differences are expected to form a cultural border. Or if a White teacher has a group of minority children in her classroom, the formation of a cultural border between them is considered inevitable.

However, if the focus switches from a society or group to individuals, the power of the cultural border rhetoric seems to lose its potency. For example, the Korean and the African-American may share many cultural traits, so their racial and ethnic difference may not have such an enduring effect.

5 days ago · The United States has closed off northbound traffic for several hours at the busiest border crossing with Mexico to install new security barriers, a day after hundreds of Tijuana residents. Sep 09,  · According to some residents, while illegal border crossings are a fact of life, fears about cartel violence spilling over the border have been overblown in the media. The Border Patrol uses half a dozen types of fencing materials-wire mesh, landing mats, chain-link, bollard, aesthetic, and sheet piling-just to control on-foot crossings.

In this essay I attempt to probe into the assumptions of the cultural border rhetoric and assess the underpinning view of culturehere I identify it as the essentialist viewin the context of multiculturalism.

Then I will introduce the constructivist view of culture by switching our focus from societal culture to individual culture so that we may see the cultural differences as an embracing factor rather than as a divisive factor.

Cultural Border and Cultural Boundary The terms "border" and " boundary" are physical in origin Johnson and Machelsen, The original imagery is not quite abandonedand is even intentionally played outwhen the terms are used in reference to culture.

Cultural border and boundary often connote the border and boundary of a nation, a state or a tribal community, which are clearly identifiable markers. The equation between a culture and a territory has dominated the discourse in anthropology Erickson, ; Ewing, ; Goodenough, ; Lugo, ; Wax, The assumption is that as long as two distinct societies remain separate from each other, their boundaries exist and cultural distinctiveness is expected.

It is further assumed that if two societies, identified with two distinct cultures, come in contact, a cultural border is expected to form between them. To many scholars a border is not a neutral demarcation line. It is a symbol of power that imposes inclusion and exclusion. The more privilegeddominant, hegemoniousside will actively control the border to keep border-crossers out.

Erickson accentuated the political nature of a border by differentiating it from a boundary: A cultural boundary refers to the presence of some kind of cultural differencecultural boundaries are characteristic of all human societies, traditional as well as modern. A border is a social construct that is political in origin.

Across a border power is exercised, as in the political border between two nations. The cultural border rhetoric is grounded in the essentialist view of culture. This view makes several assumptions regarding culture: The first assumption is evident in the work of many anthropologists. The cultural boundary is viewed as coterminous with a nation, a state, a tribe, a community or an organization that is clearly defined by an identifiable markeroften physical borders.

Goodenough attributed this notion of culture to Franz Boas, a pioneer German-American anthropologist: At the end of the nineteenth century, Franz Boas began to use "culture" to refer to the distinctive body of customs, beliefs, and social institutions that seemed to characterize each separate society.

Stocking, cited in Goodenough, p. This close match makes the conceptual interchange of culture and society acceptable. Henze and Vanett further explore this assumption of culture in the metaphor of "walking in two worlds" in their study of native Alaskan and Native American students.

The second assumption of cultural homogeneity suggests that a homogeneous, patterned prototype of a culture can be abstracted. It implies that a "pure" form of a culture exists.

Any variation from the pure form is treated as an exception, peripheral to "the culture. The diffusionist view of culture argues against this notion of cultural homogeneity, for all cultures include elements borrowed from other cultures Linton, ; Wax, The third assumption of the cultural border is that a culture is "shared" by members of a society.

The extent of sharedness is debatable, yet sharedness is considered a trademark of culture. This assumption suggests that people within a cultural system share a set of traits unique to their group membership. Sharedness is considered a product of cultural transmission and acquisition which often take place through personal interactions among members of physical proximity.

In other words, an Asian is expected to share with other Asians traits unique to Asian culture. When a group is small and specific, the extent of sharedness among members may be higher.The recent opening of two land-border crossings between India and Myanmar at Tamu/Moreh in the state of Manipur and Rihkhawdar-Zowkhawtar in Mizoram will go a long way toward bringing India and.

Mexico’s Interior Department said in a statement that it had received refugee requests by Hondurans at the border crossing. It released photos of migrants getting off buses at a shelter and.

A term paper on border crossing delays

5 days ago · Border Crossing is a series of stories and essays from people who are serving in ministry at the US-Mexico line.

We hope these reflections help church people discuss boundaries, borders, and border crossings. This essay appears in Spanish below the English version. More are expected to do the same type of border crossings this year amid concerns about the direction of immigration policy in the U.S.

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